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Concept of the meter for exhaust gases opacity

The article presents the principle of operation of an smoke opacity measure based of the properties of an ionization detector. The introduction provides an overview of the methods available on the market for detecting particulate matter present in exhaust gases. Then the concept, construction and principle of operation of the meter were presented. The phenomenon of voltage brownout between isotope sensor electrodes, which is proportional to the concentration of soot present in the probed exhaust gases, was used. The data obtained in this way are properly interpreted by the meter, which activates the appropriate procedures depending on the exhaust gases opacity value. The article contains exemplary results of measurements obtained with the use of this sensor. The results of research tests and exhaust gases opacity measurements using an isotope meter indicate that exhaust gas pollution from engines powered by different types of fuels can be measured and controlled. The implementation of an electronic exhaust gas meter is relatively simple and justified, especially in the case of combustion engines after several years of exploitation, when for various reasons there is an increase in the emission of particulate matter in the exhaust gases. The signal from the meter can be also used to correct the fuel delivery, which increases the smoke opacity. The particulate matter emission measurement system proposed by the authors can be used in a vehicle as an additional monitor of the OBD (On-Board Diagnostics) diagnostic system. It can inform the user, degraded mode related to exceeding the permissible emission of toxic exhaust components, as well as other faults indicated by the diagnostic system, such as misfiring or damage to the catalytic converter.
Topic: Emission measurements and aftertreatment
Author: Marek Budzyński, Tutaj Józef