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Analysis of the ecological effectiveness of passenger transport by jets of various sizes

The emission of harmful exhaust gas compounds from combustion engines depends on operating conditions. The development of tests, aiming to assess pollutant emissions from various means of transport, is the key to minimize the human impact on the environment. An example of the test is LTO cycle mentioned in ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation) Annex 16 about aircrafts’ emission and noise. The LTO procedure was created to assess emission of harmful exhaust compounds from civil aircraft engines. The flight of the aircraft is mapped by four phases. Each of them has a different duration and power setting. The whole test lasts about 30 minutes. The durations of individual phase are proportional to the one in real conditions. The emission in LTO cycle is defined as mass of the harmful compound per mass of used fuel. The LTO cycle is used for aircrafts over 27.6 kN of thrust and does not includes cruising phase above 3000 ft. The article’s aim was to compare a common jetliner with 189 passenger capacity flying on two CFM engines and a very light jet business aircraft designed to carry up to 8 people on board. The emission factor and Fuel Flow Rate necessary to make calculations come from ICAO emission databank. The carried-out analysis showed that the NOx emission per passenger in Very Light Jet (VLJ) is three times higher than in common jet airliner, furthermore there is 15 times difference in CO emission. Based on the results of the analysis, it can be stated that it is appropriate to extend the certification of engines to smaller units, as well as to adjust the LTO test beyond laboratory conditions.
Topic: Emission measurements and aftertreatment
Author: Kardach Monika
Co-authors: Fuć Paweł Galant Marta