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Global trends in vehicular emissions legislation with a special focus on further stages (EU 7/VII and China 7/VII) - associated development of ICE/hybrid/EV powertrain technologies and testing methodologies for LD, HD and NRMM sectors

Over the past 50 years, emissions control from vehicles and machinery has expanded from a niche requirement to one that is by far the strongest driver of powertrain development. In recent years, the questions of energy efficiency, fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions have also been added to the equation. Despite a wide range of changes to exhaust emissions requirements being made in recent years, multiple jurisdictions are considering the implementation of further changes in the near future. Such requirements do not only affect passenger cars – requirements are becoming increasingly similar for multiple sectors, even for NRMM; it can be said that requirements are slowly converging, from multiple points of view. An example of this is the concept of fuel-neutral emissions limits, a philosophy already partially adopted, but which is set to be adopted more widely, and perhaps eventually universally. A further example is the growing requirement for emissions compliance to be demonstrated under realistic conditions of use, rather than an idealised, predefined set of test parameters. Powertrain electrification is normal understood as being motivated by efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions considerations, but such changes also impact harmful exhaust emissions. Even mild powertrain electrification makes powertrain operation (and thus development) vastly more complicated. However, changes to powertrain hardware are not limited to electrification – in the currently climate, many ideas and concepts for engine design are being revisited, which form an important part of holistic improvements in powertrain- and vehicle-level efficiency and environmental performance. Powertrain technologies and emissions requirements evolve in concert, with each affected by the other, as well as many other external factors.
Topic: Sustainability and global trends in powertrain technology
Author: Piotr Bielaczyc
Co-authors: Joseph Woodburn