VII PTNSS Congress - 27th-29th June 2017
PL EN Your account Create account

Registered articles list

Vehicular Emissions in review

Powertrain technology is developing very rapidly as a result of pollutant and greenhouse gas regulations.  Europe is implementing real driving emissions (RDE) standards with the conformity factors for light-duty diesel NOx ramping down to 1.5X by 2021.  The US is placing a stronger emphasis on laboratory emissions, but the LD regulations are about an order of magnitude tighter than Euro 6.  The California HD low-NOx regulation is advancing and may be proposed in 2017/18 for implementation in 2023+. Beijing, China, and India have finalized Euro 6 type regulations for implemention in the 2020 timeframe.  The second phase of US HD greenhouse gas regulations propose another 25-30% tightening beyond Phase 1, beginning in 2021.
LD and HD engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. LD gasoline concepts are achieving 45% BTE (brake thermal efficiency or net amount of fuel energy gong to the crankshaft) and closing the gap with diesel. Projections indicate tight CO2 regulations will require some degree of hybridization and/or high-performing diesel engines. HD engines are demonstrating more than 50% BTE using methods that can reasonably be commercialized; and proposals are developed for reaching 55% BTE.
Lean NOx  SCR technology trends emphasize durability, N2O, and greatly reduced emissions.  Diesel PM (particulate matter) reductions are evolving around the nature of soot and the distribution in the filters. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) particulates carry PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) through the three way catalyst, but filters can remove most of them.  Gasoline particulate filter regeneration is now better understood.  Improved understanding of oxidation catalyst formulations are reported with further quantification of the impact of precious metal formulations. Finally, three-way catalysts understanding of the catalyst-support interactions, and the introduction of a low-mass cellular substrate that improves TWC cold start performance are recent advances.
Topic: Fuel injection systems and mixture formation
Author: Timothy Johnson